स्वस्त असल्याने युरियाचा असंतुलित वापर वाढतोय ! दुष्परिणाम वाढत आहेत.

पीक अन्न म्हणून सरळ युरिया घेत नाही, तर नाइट्रेट घेते. या रुपांतरासाठी जमीन जिवंत असायला हवी.

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आमचे इतर लेख वाचण्यासाठी फेसबुक पेज लाईक करा
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नत्र पानांच्या पेशीमध्ये हरित लवकाची निर्मिती करते. प्रकाशसंश्‍लेषणाद्वारे पिकाचे अन्न बनवण्यास मदत करते. यामुळे पिकाची झपाट्याने कायिक वाढ होते, चांगली फुले व फळे लागतात. पिकामध्ये प्रथिने तयार होण्यासाठी नत्र आवश्‍यक आहे.

युरियामध्ये ४६ टक्के नत्र असते. युरियामधील ४६ टक्के नत्र पिकाला किती मिळते हे वापरण्याच्या पद्धतीवर अवलंबून असते. ओल्या जमिनीत युरिया दिल्यानंतर त्याची पाण्यासोबत अभिक्रिया होऊन अमोनियम तयार होतो. युरिया जर पारंपरिक पद्धतीने शेतात फेकून दिला, तर ही अभिक्रिया मातीवर म्हणजेच उघड्यावर होते. अमोनियमचे अमोनिया गॅसमध्ये रुपांतर होऊन तो लगेच हवेत उडून जातो. म्हणून युरिया नेहमी जमिनीत पेरून द्यावा.

अमोनियम हे अस्थिर संयुग असते. जमिनीत नैसर्गिकरीत्या आढळणारा नायट्रोझोमोनस जिवाणूच्या मदतीने तो नाइट्राईटमध्ये रुपांतरीत होतो. लगेच नायट्रोबॅक्‍टर जिवाणूच्या मदतीने नाइट्रेट तयार होते.

भात पीक सोडून इतर सर्व पिके नत्र फक्त नाइट्रेट स्वरुपातच घेतात. याचा अर्थ असा, की पीक अन्न म्हणून सरळ युरिया घेत नाही, तर नाइट्रेट घेते. या रुपांतरासाठी जमीन जिवंत असायला हवी.

जमिनीमध्ये सेंद्रिय कर्ब भरपूर पाहिजे. त्यामुळे जमिनीत हवा आणि ओलाव्याचे योग्य प्रमाण टिकून राहते. उपयुक्त जिवाणू, बुरशी व इतर जिवांची चांगली वाढ होते. यासाठी रासायनिक खताबरोबर चांगले कुजलेले शेणखत, गांडूळखत, हिरवळीचे खते दरवर्षी जमिनीत मिसळावीत. विघटित युरिया वाया जाण्याची कारणे

युरियाचे अमोनिफिकेशन होताना हवेशी संपर्क आला, की अमोनिया वायू तयार होऊन तो हवेत उडून जातो. या क्रियेला होलाटीलाईझेशन असे म्हणतात. हे नुकसान सर्वांत जास्त म्हणजे दिलेल्या युरियाच्या जवळपास ५८ ते ६० टक्के असते. जेव्हा युरिया नाइट्रेट स्वरुपात येतो, तेव्हा पिकाची मुळे त्याला कोशिकांमध्ये शोषून घेतात. परंतु, जमिनीत जर ओल खूप जास्त असेल तर चल नाइट्रेट घटक मुळांपासून दूर खोल जमिनीत पाण्याबरोबर झिरपून जातो. याचे प्रमाण २० ते २२ टक्के आहे.

ज्या जमिनीला पाट पद्धतीने पाणी दिले जाते, तिथे चिखल तयार होतो. मातीतील हवेची जागा पाणी घेते. मुळांची अन्न व पाणी घेण्याची प्रक्रिया थांबते. त्यामुळे पाणी देण्यासाठी ठिबक सिंचन ही सर्वोत्तम पद्धत आहे. पिकांच्या मुळांबरोबर नत्रासाठी स्पर्धा करणारे काही जिवाणू जमिनीत राहतात. आपला जीवनक्रम पूर्ण करण्यासाठी जिवाणू नाइट्रेट शोषून घेऊन सेंद्रिय स्वरुपात रुपांतरीत करतात. पीक हे नत्र घेऊ शकत नाही याला इंमोबिलायझेशन म्हणतात. युरियामधील फक्त ३० ते ३५ टक्के नत्र पिकाला मिळते.

भूषण जाधव ,
फोन – 7030417082
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