दूध म्हणजे नक्की काय असत? त्यातील रंजक गोष्टी माहिती आहेत का?  

69

आमचे इतर लेख वाचण्यासाठी फेसबुक पेज लाईक करा
————————————————————-

दूध आणि दुग्धजन्य पदार्थ आपल्या आयुष्याचा भाग आहेत. दुध, पनीर, श्रीखंड पासून ते आजच्या मॉडर्ण युगातील दुध पावडर इत्यादी गोष्टी आपण आसपास पाहत असतो. दुध नक्की काय असते आणि त्यातील रंजक गोष्टीबद्दल आपण माहिती घेऊयात.

 आपण ज्यांना सस्तन प्राणी म्हणतो अशा प्राण्यांत पिलांच्या जन्मानंतर त्यांच्या मातेच्या स्तनातून स्रवणारा द्रव पदार्थ म्हणजे दूध असतो. सस्तन प्राण्यां वर्गामध्ये काही ग्रंथींचे रूपांतर हे काळानुरूप दुग्धग्रंथींमध्ये  झालेले असते.

दुधामध्ये कोणते घटक असतात – दूध हे मेदाम्ले, प्रथिन (केसीन) आणि शर्करा (लॅक्टोज) आणि पाणी यांचे मिश्रण आहे. याशिवाय दुधात सोडियम, पोटॅशियम व कॅल्शियमयुक्त क्षार आणि सूक्ष्म प्रमाणात फॉस्फरस पेंटॉक्साइड व सर्व जीवनसत्त्वे असतात.

दुधामध्ये काही प्रमाणात जीवाणूप्रतिबंधक करणारे आणि कवकप्रतिबंध करणारे विकरेही आढळतात. दुधातील केसीन निर्मितीसाठी ‘काप्पा’ जनुक आवश्यक असते. हे जनुक नसल्यास दुधनिर्मिती होत नाही.

सस्तन प्राण्यांतील दुधनिर्मितीची जनुके सारखी असली तरी सर्व सस्तन प्राण्यांच्या दूधातील घटक व प्रतिकारद्रव्ये जातींनुसार वेगवेगळी असतात. दुधाला येणारा गोडसर वास त्यातील मेदाम्ले, प्रथिने इ. घटकांच्या एकत्रित परिणामामुळे येतो.

मातेने पिलास जन्म दिल्यानंतर पहिले काही दिवस येणाऱ्या दुधास ‘कोलोस्ट्रम’ म्हणतात. कोलोस्ट्रममधील प्रतिकारद्रव्ये नवजात पिलांचे संसर्गापासून संरक्षण करतात.

स्तनपानास सुरुवात केल्यानंतर (स्तनाच्या) पश्च पियुषिका ग्रंथीमधून ऑक्सिटॉसिन नावाचे संप्रेरक स्रवते. ऑक्सिटॉसिनाच्या प्रभावामुळे स्तनांमध्ये साठलेले दूध स्तनाग्रातून बाहेर वाहते. दुधातील प्रथिनांना पूर्ण प्रथिने म्हणतात. कारण या प्रथिनांमध्ये सर्व ॲमिनो आम्ले असतात.

दुधामध्ये ८०% केसीन प्रथिन व इतर दहा विविध प्रथिने असतात. केसीन कलिल कण आणि सूक्ष्मातीत कॅल्शियम फॉस्फेट रेणू एकत्र येऊन दुधाचे मिश्रण झालेले असते.

पशुपालन चालू झाल्यानंतर मानवाने इतर जनावरांच्या दुधाचा आपल्या अन्नात समावेश केलेला आहे. गाय, म्हैस, उंटीण, बकरी, याक, गाढवी यांचे दूध उपलब्धतेप्रमाणे वापरले जाते.

दूध विरजून दही आणि चीज बनविणे हि पद्धत सुमारे २,००० वर्षांपूर्वीपासून प्रचलित आहे. आता दुग्धव्यवसाय पूर्ण व्यावसायिक पद्धतीने केला जात असल्याचे आपल्याला भारतात दिसून येईल.

पशुधनाच्या संख्येनुसार जगात आपला भारत देश प्रथम क्रमांकावर आहे तर दुग्ध उत्पादनात दुसऱ्या क्रमांकावर आहे. दुग्ध संशोधक वर्गीस कुरियन यांच्यामुळे व अमूल सारख्या यशस्वी संस्थामुळे मागील दोन दशकांत भारतातील दुधाच्या उत्पादनात झालेली प्रचंड वाढ ‘धवल क्रांती’ म्हणून ओळखली जात आहे.

डॉ. सीमा शिंदे
( M.V.Sc. Animal Pathology)
————————————————————-
आमचे इतर लेख वाचण्यासाठी फेसबुक पेज लाईक करा

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