चतुरंग शेतीची संकल्पना मांडून शरद जोशींनी काळाची गरज ओळखली होती…

स्वातंत्र्यानंतर पहिल्यांदा श्री शरद जोशी यांनी प्रकर्षाने मांडली व सप्रमाण सिद्ध करून दिली.

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आमचे इतर लेख वाचण्यासाठी फेसबुक पेज लाईक करा
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        भारतीय शेतकऱ्यांच्या गरीबी व दारिद्र्याचे मूळ शेतमालाच्या भावात असून, शेतमालाला रास्त भाव सरकारच्या शेतकरी विरोधी धोरणांमुळे मिळत नाही, ही बाब स्वातंत्र्यानंतर पहिल्यांदा श्री शरद जोशी यांनी प्रकर्षाने मांडली व सप्रमाण सिद्ध करून दिली.

त्यातूनच त्यांनी ‘शेतमालाची आधारभूत किंमत ही उत्पादनखर्चावर आधारित असावी’ ही संकल्पना मांडली. या संकल्पनेचे मागणीत रुपांतर करून भारतीय शेतकऱ्यांना संपूर्ण आर्थिक मिळावं, शेतीला उद्योगाचा दर्जा मिळावा, यासाठी शेतकरी संघटना व नंतर किसान समन्वय समितीची स्थापना करून मोठमोठी आंदोलने करीत प्रसंगी आमरण उपोषणाचे हत्यारही उपसले.

शेतकरी सुखी व्हावा, त्यांना इतर नागरिकांप्रमाणे सन्मानाने जगता यावे, यासाठी श्री शरद जोशी यांनी केंद्र सरकारच्या स्थायी सल्लागार समितीचे अध्यक्ष (सन १९९० ते १९९१) असताना ‘राष्ट्रीय कृषिनीती’चा मसुदा तसेच कृषिविषयक कार्यबल (अ‍ॅग्रीकल्चर टास्क फोर्स)चे अध्यक्ष (सप्टेंबर २००० ते जुलै २००१) असताना अहवाल केंद्र शासनाला सादर केला होता. यात त्यांनी जागतिक व्यापार संघटनेच्या संदर्भात देशाची अर्थ व कृषिनीती कशी असावी, याबाबत केंद्र शासनाला मोलाच्या सूचना केल्या होत्या.

भारतीय शेतकरी स्वयंपूर्ण व्हावा, उद्योजक व्हावा, त्याला बाजारपेठेत स्वत:चे अस्तित्व व दबदबा निर्माण करता यावा, श्री शरद जोशी यांनी ९ व १० नोव्हेंबर १९९१ रोजी शेगाव (जिल्हा बुलडाणा) येथे आयोजित शेतकरी मेळाव्यात व त्यानंतर १५, १६, व १७ डिसेंबर १९९१ रोजी वर्धा येथे पार पडलेल्या शेतकरी संघटनेच्या राज्य कार्यकारिणीच्या बैठकीत ‘सीता शेती, माजघर शेती, व्यापार शेती व निर्यात शेती’ या ‘चतुरंग शेती’ची संकल्पना मांडली.

‘सीता शेती’
सीतामाई ही भूमिकन्या असल्याने तसेच कापसाची वेचणी करण्यापूर्वी सीतामाईची पूजा केली जात असल्याने त्यांनी या शेतीला ‘सीता शेती’ संबोधले. यात प्रत्येक शेतकऱ्याने त्यांच्याकडील शेतीचा काही भाग घरच्या लक्ष्मीच्या अर्थात पत्नीच्या नावे करून द्यावा. ती त्या शेतीवर सीतामाईच्या काळात ज्या पद्धतीने शेती केली जायची, त्याच पद्धतीने रासायनिक खतांच्या वापराशिवाय अर्थात जैविक पदार्थांचा वापर करून शेती करेल.

‘माजघर शेती’
या शेतीत उत्पादित केलेल्या कोणत्याही शेतमालाला पोत्यात भरून बाजारात नेण्यापूर्वी त्या मालाला घरच्या लक्ष्मीचा हात लागला पाहिजे. तो साफ करून, निवडून, तो दोन किलो, पाच किलो पिशव्यांमध्ये भरून बाजारात पाठवण्याची व्यवस्था केली पाहिजे. त्यावर प्रक्रिया करण्याची व्यवस्था केली पाहिजे. शेतमालावर प्रक्रिया ही घरच्या लक्ष्मीने करायची आहे.

‘व्यापार शेती’
घरात प्रक्रिया व पॅकिंग केलेला शेतमाल बाजारात विकण्याची जबाबदारी ही पुरुषांनी स्वीकारावी. शेतकऱ्यांनी तयार केलेला ताजा व उत्तम शेतमाल ग्राहकांना इतर कुठल्याही ठिकाणांपेक्षा रास्त व कमी किमतीत मिळू शकेल, अशा पाच हजार दुकानांची साखळी महाराष्ट्रभर उभी करावी. त्यासाठी पब्लिक लिमिटेड कंपन्या स्थापन करण्याची संकल्पना मांडली होती.

‘निर्यात शेती’
देशाला परकीय चलनाच्या संकटातून मुक्त करण्यासाठी शेतमालाची निर्यात करणे आवश्यक आहे. पाया मजबूत असल्याशिवाय आपण टिकाव धरू शकरणार नाही. आपण उत्पादित केलेल्या शेतमालापैकी १० टक्के मालाची निर्यात करू शकू व देशाला परकीय चलनाच्या संकटातून सोडवू शकू. यामुळे आपण छोटे शेतकरी राहणार नाहीत तर आंतरराष्ट्रीय शेतकरी बनू, असा विश्वासही श्री शरद जोशी यांनी व्यक्त केला होता.

‘पब्लिक लिमिटेड कंपनी’
या संकल्पनेला मूर्त रूप देण्यासाठी श्री शरद जोशी यांनी शेतमालावर प्रक्रिया करण्यासाठी पब्लिक लिमिटेड कंपन्या स्थापन करण्याचे आवाहन केले होते. त्यांनी स्वत: शिवार इंडिया लिमिटेडची स्थापना करून या कंपनीच्या माध्यमातून महाराष्ट्रभर दुकानांची साखळी तयार करण्याची योजना तयार होती. त्याअनुषंगाने शेतकरी सॉल्व्हंट, पावन प्रोटीन, गावकरी अ‍ॅग्रो या शेतमालावर प्रक्रिया करणाऱ्या कंपन्या स्थापन करण्यात आल्या. मोठी गुंतवणूक व बाजारपेठेतील तांत्रिक अडचणींमुळे त्या काळात या कंपन्यांना पाहिजे तसे यश मिळाले नाही.

‘एफपीसी/एफपीओ’
केंद्र शासनाने शेती क्षेत्रात सुधारणा करण्याच्या दृष्टीने ‘फार्मर प्रोड्यूसर कंपनी (एफपीसी) व फार्मर प्रोड्यूसर ऑर्गनायझेशन (एफपीओ) ही संकल्पना मांडली व त्यावर अंमलबजावणी करायला सुरुवात केली. ‘एफपीसी’च्या कामाचे स्वरूप पब्लिक लिमिटेड कंपनीप्रमाणे तर, ‘एफपीओ’च्या कामाचे स्वरूप सामाजिक संस्थांप्रमाणे आहे.

‘एफपीसी’ची स्थापना कंपनी कायदा १९५९ अंतर्गत चार्टर्ड अकाऊंटंट मार्फत तर ‘एफपीओ’ची स्थापना धर्मदाय आयुक्तांमार्फत करावी लागते. या दोहोंच्या संचालकपदासाठी केवळ ‘सातबारा’धारक व्यक्ती पात्र असतात. या दोन्ही संस्थांच्या माध्यमातून शेतमालाचे उत्पादन, त्यासाठी शेतकऱ्यांशी करार करणे, काढणी (मळणी), प्रोसेसिंग (प्रक्रिया), प्रोक्युरमेंट (खरेदी), ग्रेडिंग (वर्गीकरण), पुलिंग, साठवण, हाताळणी, मार्केटिंग, निर्यात या सर्व बाबी करता येतात. शेतमालाच्या उत्पादनासाठी लागणाऱ्या काही निविष्ठांची निर्मिती करून त्या रास्त दरात भागधारक शेतकऱ्यांना पुरविता येते.

छोटे मोठे प्रोसेसिंग युनिट उभारण्यासाठी शासनाच्या ‘नाबार्ड’सह अन्य वित्तीय संस्थांकडून अनुदानावर व बँकांकडून कर्जपुरवठा उपलब्ध होऊ शकतो. प्रामाणिकपणे काम केल्यास ‘एफपीसी’ व ‘एफपीओ’च्या माध्यमातून भागधारक शेतकऱ्यांना त्यांचा शेतमालाला चांगला भाव मिळवून देता येऊ शकतो. शिवाय, या दोन्ही संस्थांना देशांतर्गत व आंतरराष्ट्रीय शेतमाल बाजारात स्वत:चे वेगळे अस्तित्व निर्माण करता येऊ शकते.

श्री शरद जोशी यांच्या ‘चतुरंग शेती व ‘एफपीसी/एफपीओ’ची सांगड घातल्यास आपल्याला सीताशेतीच्या माध्यमातून पूर्णपणे सेंद्रीय किंवा कमीतकमी रसायने वापरून दर्जेदार शेतमालाचे उत्पादन घेता येते. माजघर शेतीच्या माध्यमातून त्या शेतमालाचे ग्रेडिंग, पुलिंग, प्रोसेसिंग, पॅकिंग करता येते. व्यापार शेतीच्या माध्यमातून तो शेतमाल बाजारात विक्रीसाठी पाठविता येतो.

समविचारी ‘एफपीसी/एफपीओ’ स्थापन करून देशात शेतमाल विक्रीसाठी दुकानांची साखळी तयार करता येऊ शकते. निर्यात शेती अंतर्गत दर्जेदार शेतमालाची ‘एफपीसी/एफपीओ’च्या माध्यमातून निर्यात करता येऊ शकते. या संपूर्ण प्रक्रियेत ‘एफपीसी/एफपीओ’च्या संचालकांसोबत भागधारक/करारधारक शेतकऱ्यांना चांगला आर्थिक फायदा होऊ शकतो. शिवाय, रोजगार निर्मितीही होऊ शकते.

विशेष म्हणजे, महाराष्ट्रात हा प्रयोग श्री विलास शिंदे यांनी सह्यादी फार्मर प्रोड्यूसर कंपनी, ज्ञानेश्वर बोडके यांनी अभिनव फार्मर प्रोड्यूसर कंपनीच्या माध्यमातून यशस्वी करून दाखविले आहेत. हा प्रयोग कुणीतरी केला आहे, कुणीतरी करीत आहे, कुणीतरी करणार आहेत, हे निश्चित! मग, तो आपण समविचार व्यक्ती एकत्र येऊन प्रामाणिकपणे करून बघायला काय हरकत आहे.

सुनील एम. चरपे,
नागपूर – 24
संपर्क – 9765092529
मेल – [email protected]
( वरील लेख श्री. सुनिलजी चरपे यांच्या ग्लोबल फार्मिंग या ब्लॉगवरुन घेण्यात आला आहे)
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आमचे इतर लेख वाचण्यासाठी फेसबुक पेज लाईक करा

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